The meeting is part of a push to mend relations, which have been strained by the Afghan conflict.
Mr Trump reduced security aid to Pakistan early last year, accusing the country of “lies and deceit”.
Mr Khan said US assistance was “miniscule” compared with what the US-led “war on terror” had cost Pakistan.
Since he won Pakistan’s general election just under a year ago, he has called for “mutually beneficial” ties with America, while remaining an outspoken critic of US anti-terrorist tactics such as drone strikes.
The Trump administration is trying to negotiate its military withdrawal from Afghanistan with the Taliban, a militant group it has long accused Pakistan of supporting.
As well as counter-terrorism and defence, the two leaders are likely to discuss trade and investment as Mr Khan battles to fend off a balance of payments crisis after a bailout from the International Monetary Fund.
How did relations fray last year?
Since Donald Trump took office in 2017, his administration has adopted a hard line against Pakistan, accusing it of supporting Islamist militants and misleading the US over the issue – charges Islamabad denies.
Mr Trump began 2018 by promising on Twitter to end “foolish” aid to the country.
As much as $2bn (£1.6bn) in US security assistance has been suspended.
After Mr Trump tweeted again in November to remind Pakistan that 9/11 mastermind Osama Bin Laden had lived there before finally being hunted down by US forces, Imran Khan shot back to “put the record straight” on which country had paid more to defeat terrorism.